Health

 

 

 

What to do if your dog falls ill .

When you buy a little puppy, the breeder will already have seen to the worming and he will have had the vet administer the first preventive injections. The worming is to be repeated at regular intervals. I for example worm with 2-4-6- weeks the litter. This is done by the vet, who will also carry out the second protective vaccination of the puppy at the age of 12 – 14 weeks. I vaccinated the litter with 6 weeks. The puppy will already have received the first protective substances from his vaccinated mother via its milk. The protective injections make it possible for the body to generate more antibodies against canine distemper, contagious inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), leptospirosis, cat's distemper and rabies. These protective injections should be repeated regularly. It is advisable to bring the logbook for the injections, handed over by breeder or vet, each time the vet is seen so as not to forget the necessary injections.

Your dog's health is completely in your hands. In other words, only a dog that is fed correctly and yet not excessively will stay healthy. A well-fed, wormed and vaccina

It is important that you keep a careful eye on your dog. 

Vomiting need not always be an alarm signal. A dog may do this occasionally and yet it need not be a cause for concern. Bolting down its food may lead to throwing up some of it, which will be eaten afterwards. It may happen that the dog, having eaten grass, will vomit this grass together with a white foam. Again, this need not be a cause for concern. It is another matter when your dog retches, heaves and vomits frequently and when its general behaviour is characterised by listlessness and symptoms of disease. In such cases the vet should be seen at once!

Seeing the vet

The dog is usually kept on a leash in the waiting room, unless this is not possible because of injury or disease. Puppies, which fool around to everybody's amusement, may start to pee spontaneously and dogs that suffer from diarrhoea may be apt to relieve themselves. The animals may not sniff each other, not even when they seem to get on well, as they could infect each other! The dog must be cleaned up before it is going to see the vet. Injuries that are bleeding can be washed out with clear water and bandaged temporarily.

If a urine sample is requested, a clean container should be used to catch the urine. Then the urine is put in a bottle with a cap that can be firmly closed. The bottle should be absolutely clean and, if necessary, boiled out first.

A sample of the dog's droppings can easily be collected using a plastic bag or a pair of plastic gloves.

Like any other doctor, the vet does not like people to come into his surgery with ready-made diagnoses. But he does need our help, especially when pinning down the symptoms. Describe the symptoms which have raised your suspicion as they are not part of the animal's normal behaviour. In doing so you will have got straight to the heart of the matter. And remember that, although the vet is prepared to take his time to listen to you, there are other patients in the waiting room that will also have to be seen to.

Helping yourself

From the very beginning you should know a number of important tricks so that you can help your dog, if need be.

How to take your dog's pulse and temperature

 

If you suspect that your dog is sick, you can take its pulse or temperature before you rush off to the vet. An elevated heartbeat could be a sign of heart problems or pain, while a high fever might indicate infection. Here is how you can take your dog's pulse and temperature.

Taking a pulse

Before you start off, make sure that your dog is relaxed, as excitement or exertion will elevate his or her pulse. Then do the following:

1 Place the ball of two fingers inside your dog's thigh close to the body on either of its rear legs

2 Count the pulse beat over a minute

A normal dog pulse will vary according to the breed. Small breeds have a higher pulse of between 90–120 beats per minute, while large dogs will have a pulse of between 60–90 beats per minute. If your dog's pulse is too low or high, seek veterinarian advice.

Taking a temperature

A normal temperature for a dog is 38.3 to 38.8 C. You can measure your dog's temperature with a rectal thermometer. Do the following:

1 Use a digital thermometer as a glass thermometer could break inside your dog's back passage if he struggles

2 Make sure that the thermometer is registering zero

Ask someone to calmly hold your dog while he or she is standing

3 Lubricate the thermometer with petroleum jelly and insert it 2.5 cm into your dog's rectum

4 Keep the thermometer there for at least one minute to get an accurate reading

5 Wipe the thermometer clean with mild antiseptic once finished

If the reading is higher or lower than what is normal, seek veterinarian advice

 

Administering solid medicines

To do so you open the dog's mouth by putting one hand over the upper jaw and slide the lips front to back over the back teeth. Then you take a tablet between thumb and index finger of the other hand, push down the lower jaw with a finger and slip the tablet as far as possible into the dog's mouth. Then you keep the mouth closed with a hand until the dog has swallowed the tablet. Gently stroke its throat to cause the reflex of swallowing. Do not forget to praise the dog!

Personally I administer a tablet that has been hidden in a piece of cheese, this works excellently with Molly.

 

 

When the dog is running a temperature

You should also be able to take the dog's temperature. In order to do so, the thermometer should first be greased and then gently pressed into the dog's anus. Remember that puppies until their first year, are said to be running a temperature when their body temperature exceeds 39.5 ° Celsius. The body temperature for grown dogs is on an average somewhat lower at about 38.5° Celsius. In case of doubt the vet should be consulted at once.

 

Health care

Along with plenty of purposeful exercise, the Border Collie needs some grooming to keep his coat in shape, especially while shedding, socialization to prevent dominance or shyness problems, and some kind of training to direct his abundance of energy and enthusiasm.  

 

Well-bred Borders are among the healthier breeds, but hip dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy [Pra] and Collie eye anomaly [CEA ] can be problems. Breeding stock should always be x-rayed for hip dysplasia and have eyes checked annually for PRA and CEA. When looking for a Border pup, always ask about hip and eye health certificates. But it is no 100% guarantee.

Epilepsy

Border Collies are also prone to epilepsie, a neurological seizure disorder, which can be extremely serious. Although epileptic seizures can usually be controlled by drugs, that's not always the case. Dogs have been known to die of uncontrollable seizures. Unfortunately, there is no test for this. Ask the breeder if there are any known epilepsy problems. Ethical breeders will be more than happy to discuss this with you.

 

Deafness

Congenital deafness can be a problem in some Border Collies[mostly by white dogs], and more breeders are starting to have breeding stock and litters hearing (BAER) tested.

 

Anesthetics

Because of their low body fat, some Border Collies may be sensitive to barbiturate-based anesthetics. This is something that you should discuss with your veterinarian before any kind of surgery or procedure for which your dog will be anesthetized.  



Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CL) in the Border Collie is a rare disease which affects the nerve cells of the body. It is also known as Storage Disease. It is an inherited disease. It is not contagious, but it is fatal and cannot be treated.please look for more information abouth CL at the website of the

 


 

THINGS TO PUT IN THE FIRST AID KIT.

 

  • cotton gauze bandage wrap - 1.5 inch width, 3 inch width

  • Vet Wrap -- 2 inch width, and 4 inch width (4 inch is sold for horses)

  • Ace bandage

  • first aid tape

  • cotton gauze pads

  • regular bandaids

  • cotton swabs or Q-tips

  • Benadryl

  • ascriptin (buffered aspirin)

  • Pepto Bismol tablets

  • New Skin liquid bandage (useful for patching abrasions on pads)

  • iodine tablets (if you hike and camp in areas where the stream water may not be safe for consumption with out first treating with iodine or boiling)

  • oral syringes (for administering liquid oral medicines, getting ear drying solution into ears, etc...very useful!)

  • needle & thread

  • safety pins in several sizes

  • razor blade (paper wrapped for protection)

  • matches

  • tweezers

  • hemostat (useful for pulling ticks, thorns, large splinters, etc)

  • small blunt end scissors

  • canine rectal thermometer (get one made specifically for dogs)

  • antibiotic ointment (such as Bacitracin, Betadine, or others)

  • Eye rinsing solution (simple mild eye wash)

  • small bottle of 3% hydrogen peroxide

  • small bottle of isopropyl alcohol (rubbing)

  • alcohol or antiseptic wipes (in small individual packets)

  • small jar of Vaseline

  • specific medications YOUR dog may need (for allergies, seizures, etc.)

Also have the following around the house, and consider packing to take on out-of-town trips:

  • Ottomax (ointment for ear infections)

  • Chlorasone eye ointment (or a similar cortisone-antibiotic eye ointment)

  • Gentocin topical spray

  • hydrocortisone topical spray (such as Cortaid brand)

  • ear cleaning solution (Nolvasan Otic, Epi-Otic, or your favorite)

  • homemade ear drying solution (1 part rubbing alcohol, 1 part white vinegar, 2 parts water)

  • otoscope (for examining ears)

  • Epsom salts

  • Hot spot remedy ingredients -- whatever your favorite hot spot remedy is, never leave home traveling with your border collie without everything you need to treat a hot spot.

Do never ever give Tylenol (toxic to liver) or ibuprofen (Nuprin, Motrin, Advil, etc.). Ibuprofen is very toxic and fatal to dogs at low doses. Only aspirin is safe for dogs, and buffered aspirin or ascriptin is preferred to minimize stomach upset.

Check with your vet to confirm dosages before using. If symptoms persist, consult your vet ASAP -- do NOT continue to try to treat at home, the problem might be more serious than you think!

Care.

Along with plenty of purposeful exercise, the Border Collie needs some grooming to keep his coat in shape, especially while shedding, socialization to prevent dominance or shyness problems, and some kind of training to direct his abundance of energy and enthusiasm.

Well-bred Borders are among the healthier breeds, but hip dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy and Collie eye anomaly can be problems. Breeding stock should always be x-rayed for hip dysplasia and have eyes checked annually for PRA and CEA. When looking for a Border pup, always ask about hip and eye health certificates.

 

 

Hip displesia & eye testing 

 

Special Medical Problems

There is a mistaken belief by some breeders that the Border Collies work weeds out unhealthy breeding stock and, as a result, the breed is unaffected by the genetic disorders common in other breeds. This is absolutely untrue! It is estimated that approximately 25% of Border Collies in the U.S. have disorders such as hip dysplasia, eye problems, and epilepsy. If a breeder tells you he doesn't check and certify hips and eyes because his particular breeding lines are unaffected by hip and eye problems, find another breeder.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy

PROGRESSIVE RETINAL DEGENERATION / PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY
Progressive retinal degeneration (PRD) is also known as progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and refers to retinal diseases that cause blindness. Some breeds have blindness by abnormal development of the retina and this is called dysplasia. Other breeds have a slowly progressive degeneration or death of the retinal tissue and this is degeneration. These two types of
diseases affect many breeds. In general these diseases are thought to be inherited but inherited differently in each breed.

In all animals with PRD the outcome, age of the patient and what the veterinary ophthalmologist sees are the basis for the classification of exactly what type of condition the patient has. Different breeds of dogs have variations in the age the problem starts and speed with which the
blindness develops. The condition of PRD has been seen in almost every registered breed and in mixed breed dogs as well. This same condition occurs in humans and is known as retinitis pigmentosa.

As the name PRD implies, a slow death of retinal tissue occurs. It is a slowly progressive disease and the earliest signs may be overlooked. As stated above, these diseases are known to be passed from parents to offspring even though the parents may have normal eyes. Therefore,
identification of breeding animals with PRD is essential to prevent spread of this condition.

To better understand PRD, a basic understanding of the function of the retina is needed. The retina is a highly complicated tissue located in the back of the eye. Light strikes the retina and starts a series of chemical reactions that causes a nerve impulse. The impulse passes through the layers of the retina to the optic nerve and from there to the brain where vision takes place. In the retina, cells called rods are involved with black and white or night vision and cells called cones are involved with color or day vision. Progressive retinal degeneration may effect either the rods alone, the cones alone or both the rods and cones together.

Progressive retinal degeneration is not a painful condition so your pet will not have a reddened eye or have increased blinking or squinting. For this reason most people will not notice the early stages of the condition. Some people will notice an abnormal shine coming from their pet's eyes. This abnormal shine is because the pupils are dilated and don't respond as quickly to light as pupils of normal dogs. The earliest signs of PRD include night vision difficulties that in most cases will progress to day blindness.
People will often remember that their pets seemed disoriented when going

out to the yard at night and they had to leave a light on for them. Night
blindness may be manifested by a pet that is afraid to go into a dark room.
Occasionally these pets will get lost in their own home after the lights
have been turned off.

  The veterinary ophthalmologist examines the retina with an instrument called an indirect ophthalmoscope. Changes in the retinal blood vessel pattern, the optic nerve head, and the reflective substance within the dog's eye called the tapetum can be seen which are classic for PRD. However in some breeds PRD characteristics have little or no early changes. The eyes of these dogs may appear normal until they are in the later stages of the disease. Progressive retinal degeneration will progress at different rates in different breeds. This variation causes difficulty in determining just how long any particular dog will continue seeing.

There is no possible treatment for PRD although a number of vitamin therapies have been suggested by various people. One such vitamin "Ocuvite" manufactured by Stortz has been recommended for people with retinitis pigmentosa and some patients claim that their vision is improved somewhat. At this time, none of the vitamin treatments have been proven to be
effective scientifically, so use of Ocuvite must be deemed a naturopathic remedy rather than a medical treatment. Use of any other megavitamin treatment is discouraged.

Cataracts may occur in some patients with PRD and generally occur later in the disease. Formation of cataracts may interfere with the ophthalmologist's direct examination of the retina and make other tests such as an electroretinogram (ERG) essential for diagnosis.

Diagnosis is made and confirmed by the ERG. This test involves sophisticated instrumentation used to measure the response of the

retina to flashes of light. Your pet would be anesthetized for this test. The pet is then placed into a darkened area, a special contact lens with a gold ribbon is placed on the cornea and two tiny needles are placed under the skin around the eye. A light flash that has been dimmed with filters stimulates the retina and this procedure is repeated intermittently for 20 minutes. Finally, a bright red, blue and white flash are used for final analysis. A healthy retina will produce a characteristic wave form that builds from the time the lights are turned out. The ERG is sensitive enough to diagnose dogs with PRD before
they begin to demonstrate signs of the disease.



In summary, PRD refers to a broad group of inherited retinal disease which result in the blindness of dogs. Because of the nature of the disease and sometimes the late onset, repeated examinations may be required to detect individuals with the condition. Patients affected should not be used for breeding. Pedigree studies are used to help eliminate other carriers of this
condition such as the pet's brothers, sisters, mother, father and any offspring.

 

Collie Eye Anomaly

Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) is another eye problem that is becoming more and more common in Border Collies. Like PRA, CEA can also cause blindness. The entire litter should be tested for CEA between the ages of six and ten weeks by a qualified veterinary ophthalmologist. An official certificate should be available if the litter has been tested, and every puppy in the litter should be listed as normal.[more information about eye's sie other diseaselink.] 

 

Hip Dysplasia

Like most medium- and large-sized dogs, Border Collies are prone to Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD), which can cause mild to severe lameness, so be sure to look for breeders that certify their dogs through the OFA and insist on seeing the certificates. Dogs do not have to be obviously lame to have this condition and pass it on to their offspring. As a dog approaches middle age, symptoms of CHD often show up as mild arthritis: the dog limps or appears somewhat stiff after hard exercise or upon getting up from a nap. Often the dog seems fine after he moves around and stretches himself a bit. These symptoms can become worse as the dog ages. Depending on the dog (age, activity level) and owner (finances, ability and williness to commit to helping the dog with its rehabilitation), treatment varies from pain management (using drugs, managed exercise,fysiotherapie and rest) to several choices of surgery (including total hip replacement).  

 

Hip dysplasia (HD) is a polygenic, hereditary, and developmental condition. It occasionally shows up in puppies as early as eight weeks, but more commonly cannot be detected until somewhere between six- months and two years. It is apparently related in some way to the amount of inherited muscle mass around the hip joint as well as the actual bone formation, and it is also influenced by environmental factors such as too rapid growth rate, excess weight, and poor diet.

The hip joint is a ball and socket joint. The thigh bone of the dog has an offset protrusion at the top in the shape of a ball. Normally this ball fits into a socket in the pelvis and is held firmly in place by muscles and ligaments. Occasionally, however, the socket is not deep enough, or is improperly formed, thus allowing the thigh bone to slip. Other times the ball is not properly formed and does not fit well into the socket. This is a HD.

There is no cure, although an operation can sometimes relieve the symptoms.

The only positive method of diagnosing HD is by X-ray. This must be carefully done with the dog well our not [just what you prefer] anaesthetised and in a exact position. Even then, mild HD can be difficult to diagnosed. For this reason an organisation called the "W.K. Hirschfeld Stichting" here in the Netherlands was established for the purpose of checking the X-rays made by specialised vets and certifying dogs of all breeds for HD.

Moost Border Collies are cathing Hd – /B.  

When the same dog is tested in Germany our in Belgium you will have another result.

In the Netherlands is it moost difficult to catch a Hd A, because the are they judge here very hard.Hd A is very rare given to dogs.[ untill 2002]

So when you look in the database, you wood think the dogs in Holland are not as good .

But thats not true !!

Nowadays 2003 they judge now like Belgium And Germany.....FCI Country's.

So from A to C....more dogs in Holland in 2003 will have a A as result.

 

 

But in the Netherlands it is very hard to catch one.

Inheritance

Being polygenic in mode of inheritance, HD is difficult to breed out of a line or a breed of dogs. Many genes are involved, and all must occur in a dog before the condition is expressed. Non-dysplastic Borders may not have any of the genes for HD, or the genes for the defect may be present but not in the right combination to allow the defect to be expressed. The latter may produce dysplastic puppies if mated with another carrier. In order to consistently produce HD A free Border Collies, you must know that the defect was not present in the ancestors of a dog (or the littermates of those ancestors) for at least three to six generations. This, of course, is a tremendous undertaking, and without the co-operation of breeders in obtaining certification and making this information available, it is impossible.

When they are old enough, we have all our Border Collies we use for breeding checked for HD.

F.C.I.-Beoordeling

Niederlande

Deutschland

Schweiz

Classification,Einstufung classification

Classification, Klassifiierung

Negatief geheel gaaf (1) HD -

Kein Hinweis fur HD

Frei

A 1

No signs of hip dysplasia

Negatief niet geheel gaaf (2) HD -

Kein Hinweis fur HD

Frei

A 2

No signs of hip dysplasia

Transitional case (TC) (2) HD TC[ A-B]

Ubergangsform (verdachtig fur HD)

Frei

B 1

Transsitional case

Transitional case (TC) (2) HD TC[ A-B]

Ubergangsform (verdachtig fur HD)

I

B 2

Transsitional case

Licht positief (3) HD +/-

Leichte HD

I

C 1

Mild

Licht positief (3) HD +/-

Leichte HD

I

C 2

Mild

Positief (3 1/2) HD +

Mittlere HD

II

D 1

Moderate

Positief (4) HD +

Mittlere HD

II

D 2

Moderate

Positief (4) HD +

Schwere HD

III

E 1

Severe

Positief optima forma (5)

HD ++

Schwere HD

IV

E 2

Severe

 

F.C.I. :

A

1

2

B

1

2

C

1

2

D

1

2

E

1

2

Beoordeling: HD

-

-

Tc

Tc

+ _

+_

+

+

++

+ +

 

  

ENGLISH EXPLANATION

In order to explain the Dutch CHD results chart, the first thing to do is look at the chart below. This chart makes it possible to compare the Dutch results with the OFA and FCI results.

This table attempts to compare ratings issued by different countries to make reading these foreign pedigrees easier. The information comparing OFA to FCI classifications was gathered directly from the OFA. The information comparing FCI classifications to other country's systems was gathered directed from the FCI*.Kamp.

 

 

OFA

FCI

Germany

Netherlands

Sweden

Switzerland

No Signs of Hip Dysplasia

Excellent

Good

(1)

A

(2)

(a)

Normal

Negatief

geheel gaaf

(1) (-)

Utmarkt

Frei

Negatief niet geheel gaaf

(2) (-)

U.A.

Near Normal Hip Joints

Fair

Borderline

(1)

B

(2)

(a)

Fast Normal

Transitional Changes

(TC)

I

I

Mild

Hip Dysplasia

Mild

(1)

C

(2)

(a)

Leichte HD

Licht positief

(3) (LP/+)

Moderate

Hip Dysplasia

Moderate

(1)

D

(2)

Mittlere

HD

Positief (3.5)

(P/+)

II

II

Severe

Hip Dysplasia

Severe

(1)

E

(2)

Schwere

HD

Positief (4)

(P/++)

III

III

Positief optima forma (5)

(P/+++)

IV

IV

 

This table attemps to compare ratings... it's not a guarantee that an FCI 1A dog will x-ray OFA Excellent, etc...

 

Looking at the Dutch results chart, you'll find 10 columns.
These are the explanations for each column:

1

Datum onderzoek

Date of research

2

HD-nummer

Number given to the evaluation by the Dutch WK Hirschfeld Stichting (The firm which evaluates the CHD x-rays.

3

Naam hond

The dog's name

4

Stamboomnummer

The pedigreenumber

5

uitslag

Dutch result (compare this with the above mentioned chart).

6

FCI-norm

FCI result, which is more accurate because of the B1, B2 etc. (so the numbers) used. A B1 is better then a B2, but the Dutch result will both be HD tc.

7

Botafwijking

Any form of deforming of the bone:
0 = no deforming
1 = very slightly deformed (does not necessarily mean DJD)
2 = slightly deformed
3 = severely deformed

8

Norbergwaarde

Take the centre of each femoral head (hip ball) and draw a line between them. Then take the centre of the femoral head and draw a line to the outerpoint of the pelvis. The angle between these lines minus 90º (3), gives the Norbergwaarde for each hip. Ad those 2 numbers and you have the Norbergwaarde used on the evaluation. The higher the Norbergwaarde the better.

9

Aansluiting

This tells us if there is lots of space between the femoral head and the pelvis (result: slecht = bad) or that there is no space, so a perfect fit (result: goed = good). The result: "onvoldoende" means: not perfect, but also not bad.
This item needs more explanation then this, so I will get back to this later.

10

Ondiepe kom

This tells us when the pelvis is not deep enough. Dogs with the mark X on the score, have one or both sides not deep enough.

 Looking at the Dutch results, everybody must notice the same thing. There are no HD A dogs on the list.
To explain this, we have to go back to column number 9 (aansluiting). You'll notice that no dog has the result: "Goed" (Dutch for Good). So no dog has the perfect fit between the pelvis and the femoral head.
Holland is the only country which uses 2 x-ray positions to evaluate the hips.
The first x-ray is like the drawing I used above to explain the Norbergwaarde. This position is used by every FCI country. The next x-ray is an example of this position. The x-ray that is used is from Goliath’s Warrior Diablo. Her results are on the bottom of this site. 

 

The second x-ray is what makes the difference.
For this x-ray, the dog has to lie on his back (as usual), but the paws are turned to the outside, with the knees pushed up as far as possible. This is a very unnatural and forced position. In this position, the femoral heads are pulled out of the pelvis. The x-ray on the left is an example of this position. Unfortunatly, we did not have the x-rays in this possition from Goliath's Warrior Diablo. So we had to use another dog. But you can see that the space between the femoral head and the pelvis is much larger then on an x-ray taken in the first position. But this second x-ray is used to evaluate the "aansluiting", so no dog has a perfect fit and the best result possible is "onvoldoende" meaning: not perfect but also not bad. This is the reason why no dog, which is officially x-rayed in Holland, will get a HD A result.
The second position is of course a point of heavy discussions. Many people think that either all FCI countries have to use this position, or the Dutch have to limit their evaluation to the first position, like every other FCI country does. Now it looks like the Dutch dogs are worse then dogs evaluated outside of Holland.

 

 

This is an example of the certificate we in Holland get from the W.K. Hirschfeld Stichting when the dog is official X-Rated. This is also Goliath's Warrior Diablo. So look at her x-ray taken in the first position and then look at her results. You'll see that an HD A is almost impossible to get in Holland. When you buy a dog in Holland you have to ask for this certificate.

 

F.C.I.-Beoordeling HD

 

OFA

FCI

Germany

Netherlands

Sweden

Switzerland

No Signs of Hip Dysplasia

Excellent

Good

(1)

A

(2)

(a)

Normal

Negatief

geheel gaaf

(1) (-)

Utmarkt

Frei

Negatief niet geheel gaaf

(2) (-)

U.A.

Near Normal Hip Joints

Fair

Borderline

(1)

B

(2)

(a)

Fast Normal

Transitional Changes

(TC)

I

I

Mild

Hip Dysplasia

Mild

(1)

C

(2)

(a)

Leichte HD

Licht positief

(3) (LP/+)

Moderate

Hip Dysplasia

Moderate

(1)

D

(2)

Mittlere

HD

Positief (3.5)

(P/+)

II

II

Severe

Hip Dysplasia

Severe

(1)

E

(2)

Schwere

HD

Positief (4)

(P/++)

III

III

Positief optima forma (5)

(P/+++)

IV

IV

 

 

Stoic Dog

A Border Collie has a very high pain tolerance. I know of several who have literally suffered broken bones while working, and kept on going. The owner was unaware of the injury until that evening or the next morning. When working, a good Border Collie is so intent on its charges that it is oblivious to all else. This means a dog could have borderline or mild hip dysplasia and still win sheepdog trials, or do a decent day's work on a smaller farm or ranch. A true hill dog running 50 to 100 miles a day probably wouldn't last long with even borderline hips, but these dogs are not the majority of Border Collies being bred today.

Since it is no longer a case of "Let the hill prove the dog," many borderline or mildly dysplastic dogs are being bred since the owner never X-rayed.  Your reputation as a breeder could be ruined forever, not to mention the suffering of the crippled dog you caused to be brought into the world. As a responsible breeder, you should X-ray ALL of your breeding stock, and constantly strive to upgrade hips in your dogs[as whe do!].  

Osteochondritis Desicans

A disease that can cause lameness in the joints of young dogs (usually from 6 to 12 months of age) is Osteochondritis Desicans (OCD). This is a degenerative disease of the joints, and is possibly associated with over-nutrition and too-fast growth of puppies. Treatment includes rest and/or surgery.  

 

Nutrition

Many conscientious dog breeders and pet owners may be bringing on some of the bone and joint problems seen today by overnutrition. "More recently studies with dogs have clearly demonstrated the adverse effects of high or unrestricted levels of nutrient intake on growth rate and on the development of degenerative skeletal diseases such as hip dysplasia and osteochondritis. Study ties in well with related findings in other species. Joint problems are common in meat animals fed high nutrient diets for maximal gowth and weight gain. In the case of meat animals, they end up in the slaughter house, so it doesn't matter. Young horses shown in halter classes (conformation) are also fed "high nutrient" diets to push them to maturity faster. Many of these beautiful young animals suffer from bone and joint problems as a result, and are unsound by the time they reach the prime of life.

 

The Border Collie may be impacted more than other breeds due to its history and development. In its native Scotland, the poor shepherds could not afford to feed premium foods, so a fuel efficient dog able to survive on a meager and low calorie ration evolved. It is likely that in the past, and in most working homes, Border Collie pups were kept 20% "underweight" by modern standards. In addition, most traditional shepherds did not start any serious training until the dog was a year old.

The working dog owner knows a working dog must be lean and athletic or risk heart attack or exhaustion when working. A canine athlete should have ribs and vertebrae that can be felt easily, but have a slight amount of flesh over them. In a short haired dog, you should just be able to see the last two ribs. In a long-haired dog, a better test is to be able to feel the hip bones, but not be able to feel the sacral vertebrae between them.

Another theory states that hip dysplasia is caused by a problem in the biosynthesis of collagen, the most important structural protein in the body, and major component of cartilage.

Prevention

Some guidelines on preventing environmental hip dysplasia and other joint and bone problems are:

1) Feed a good quality growth formula that meets standards but feed half to two thirds of what the bag says to feed. Then monitor the pup's weight by feeling the ribs, backbone and hips. You should not be able to feel the sacral vertebrae between the hip bones. If the pup gets too heavy, cut the intake of food. If it gets too thin, increase the food intake. Remember dog food companies want to make money, so they always recommend feeding more than your dog needs.

2) Do not mess up the balance of nutrients by supplementation of "fad" vitamins. If you feel you must supplement, use a well balanced vitamin mineral supplement such as PET TABS GRANULES WITH ZINC, or LINATONE and use half of what they recommend. Remember, they also make money by encouraging over use of their products.

3) NEVER breed no matter how good a worker or how wonderful a showdog is. Plenty of evidence exists to show that there is a genetic predisposition for hip dysplasia.

 

 

Flea's.....& tattooing/chipping, Fighting Allergies and more.

 

Flea Wars

Itch. Itch. Scratch. Scratch. Like clockwork. Every year dogs all over perform this erratic dance to rid themselves of that blood-guzzling parasite-the flea. What is it about this pesky arthropod that makes it such a daunting foe to dogs and their owners? For one thing, fleas multiply faster than the average fourth grader.  

One female can produce enough eggs to infest your entire house. When the eggs hatch the immature fleas, called larvae, go through a cocoon stage. The young fleas mature into the adult fleas we're so familiar with. This life cycle occurs in as few as 14 days, but if the circumstances aren't right—if the weather is too cold—the larvae can hibernate in their little white fortresses for up to five months. They wait for the right moment to break out and start the onslaught.

Fortunately, we have access to products that attack adult fleas (organophosphates, pyrethrins, imidocloprid, fipronyl), prevent baby fleas from growing (methoprene, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen), and are eaten by adult female fleas to keep eggs from developing (lufeneron). Some products are applied as shampoos, dips, sprays and foggers, while others are monthly pills or spot-ons.

Which products should you use?
"To prevent flea infestation, start with one of the monthly spot-ons or pills," said Dr. Carlo Vitale, DVM, a veterinary dermatologist in the San Francisco Bay area. "If you already have a big flea infestation...treat the carpets and the yard with products containing an insect growth regulator."

Over-the-counter or veterinary products
There are many good veterinarian-prescribed flea products as well as over-the-counter products. Many OTC products contain the same active ingredients as those sold at the veterinary hospital but not always in the same concentrations. Make sure you use the product as intended by the manufacturer.

"When choosing an [OTC] flea product, it's important to read the package label," said Karen DeCarlo, a spokeswoman at Farnam, which markets over-the-counter flea and tick control products and other companion animal products. "Specific products are meant to be used on specific animals. Using a product intended for a different species can jeopardize your pet's health." Using a product incorrectly also can be ineffective and is one of the main reasons for treatment failure. The other common reason for treatment failure is neglecting to treat all of the household pets.

Got it straight?
Flea control can be confusing with the varying levels of infestation, number of pets in the household and different product-safety levels. But now you know the types of treatments available. Consult your veterinarian for treatment regime tailored specifically for your dog's needs.

 

 

Permanent ID

chipping is a great way to identify your pet.

Chip is safe, not particularly painful and takes only a few minutes, but it can be uncomfortable . The benefits, however, outweigh any discomfort. Contact your the National Dog . If your dog is ever lost or stolen, the registry will help you to locate it. All oure dogs are chip registry.

Fighting Allergies

Allergies are frustrating for dogs and their owners, but with patience they can be treated.

Dogs usually chew and lick at themselves because of allergies. Allergic skin disease is a common problem in dogs, and, although not curable, it is controllable.

Dogs can be allergic to hundreds of different substances. but the most common are pollens, flea saliva, grasses and weeds, mold spores and some food ingredients. These substances can trigger reactions by direct contact or by being eaten or inhaled.

Whatever the route of entry, allergens trigger a hypersensitive reaction in the skin. Your dog feels as if its skin is on fire and responds by chewing, scratching or licking to try to relieve the irritation. This self-mutilation leads to red skin, hair loss, sores and scabbing, often progressing to oozing, infected areas and chronically thickened, stinking skinfolds. Affected dogs tend to lose weight and be irritable, and they smell bad from the secondary skin infection (pyoderma). Dogs that have heavy, matted coats and oozing sores from allergies can become infested with maggots.

Even without such horrible side effects, you want to give your dog relief from the irritation and frustration of itchy skin. This requires veterinary attention from a professional who is willing to treat the problem until it is under control.

Ideally, treatment of allergic skin disease would involve removal of the allergen. This is feasible if the culprit is fleas, but not if the problem is caused by such things as pollens or grasses.

Note where the irritation takes place. Fleas feed most often on the back and around the base of the tail, so look for itching and sores in those areas.

Some veterinary clinics perform skin tests to identify allergens. Once these are identified, injections can be given to desensitize the dog to the irritating substance. Unfortunately, this is expensive and can be frustrating, because the dog can develop new allergies over time.

The most common way of controlling allergies is to suppress the allergic response in the dog when its allergies are at their worst and to treat the skin infection with antibiotics. In mild cases, antihistamines given orally once or twice a day can bring relief. For open or oozing sores, topical sprays or creams that contain antibiotics and cortisone can soothe the inflammation.

Some dogs have such severe allergies that antihistamines don't bring relief. In those cases, a short treatment of oral cortisone can reduce the skin response and give the dog relief. Cortisones (such as prednisone) are generally safe if taken orally and if use is carefully monitored by your veterinarian. The usual treatment starts with high daily doses until symptoms are under control (which takes three to six days). Then the drug can be given every other day. The dosage is slowly reduced until it can be withdrawn altogether.

If cortisone doesn't help, a food allergy is a possibility. Food allergy treatment involves feeding a special diet.

Many Reasons for Rashes

A specialist may help you pinpoint the cause of irritation.

Rashes are common reactions to irritation of the skin, and unfortunately there are dozens of potential causes for the irritation. These include contact allergens (pollens, mold spores), food allergies, bacterial infections, self-mutilation, ectopic parasites, yeast or fungal infections, overactive oil glands, lack of proper skin growth due to hormonal imbalances (thyroid, estrogen, adrenal), genetic disorders (dermatomyositis, acrodermatitis, cutaneous asthenia, sebaceous adenitis) or even some forms of skin cancer.

Because many or most of these conditions have signs that overlap, a specific diagnosis is important. Skin biopsies are best read by boardcertified veterinary dermatopathologists, pathologists who specialize in dog and cat skin. There are many of these specialists around the country who, for a nominal fee, can read and interpret the biopsies your veterinarian mails to them.

You may also wish to seek a second opinion from a veterinary dermatologist. Your veterinarian can refer you to a specialist.

 

 

 

Canine Puppy Strangles


Puppy strangles

Puppy strangles (Juvenile cellulitis) is a misnamed disease suggesting
respiratory difficulty. The term cellulitis more appropriately describes
the condition. Usually puppies contract the condition early from 4 weeks
to 4 months of age. There is no predisposition to breed or gender. Not
all puppies are affected in the litter but, the entire litter can be
involved. Early signs include redness around the outside of the ear
associated with edema (fluid under the skin). The disease quickly
progresses to ulcerations of the skin and deep tissues around the ear,
followed by draining tracts that can extend into the adjacent lymph nodes
of the face and upper neck.

The cause of the disease is open. Historically, a bacteria has been
suspected, in particular streptococcus species. However, bacterial
cultures never confirm any bacterial infection. Antibiotic therapy alone
is ineffective and helps to rule out a bacterial cause. More recently,
immune reactions have been suspected. Research suggests a
hypersensitivity reaction possibly to a previously eliminated bacteria.
More importantly, the disease seems to respond to immunosuppressive
therapy with consistency.

Treatment for strangles consists of support by keeping the areas clean
and dry with diluted hydrogen peroxide and astringent (Burow¹s solution)
washes several times a day. Additionaly, oral corticosteroids are used
for 1-3 weeks on a reducing schedule. Oral antibiotics are frequently
prescribed over 2 weeks for ancillary therapy. The coarse of the disease
is usually less than 2 weeks but can last 4-6 weeks on more severe cases.
The prognosis is usually very good but some pups may require special
nursing to insure adequate hydration and nutrition.

 

Rabiës

What’s Rabies ?

Rabies is a virus that can affect any warm-blooded animal; whenever someone is bitten by an animal, the chance of rabies exists. Although the incidence of rabies in humans is low, more than 30,000 people undergo treatment for possible exposure to rabies in the US.

What Rabies do..?

Rabies primarily attacks the nervous system and causes an encephalitis. The virus is transmitted in saliva from the bite of an infected animal. The incubation period prior to clinical signs is extremely variable, but is usually two-to-eight weeks. The virus will begin shedding in saliva a short time before clinical signs develop, usually less than 10 days.

For both humans and domestic animals, the primary source of rabies is the bite of a rabid wild animal. The most common of these are rabids and fox.

 

Clinical signs

There are three phases to the course of the disease: prodromal, furious, and paralytic. Death occurs three to-seven days from the onset of signs.

The prodomal stage lasts two-to-three days. The signs can include behavioral changes, fever, slow eye reflexes, and chewing at the bite site.

The furious stage lasts two-to-four days. During this stage, signs of erratic behavior may include irritability, restlessness, barking, aggression, vicious attacks on inanimate objects, and unexplained roaming. Disorientation and seizures may also develop.

The paralytic stage lasts two-to-four days, during which signs of paralysis develop, usually beginning in the limb that was bitten. Paralysis of the throat and face cause a change in the bark, drooling with typical foaming at the mouth, and a dropped jaw. These signs are followed by depression, coma, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Once clinical signs develop, there is no treatment.

 

Prevention in pets

All dogs and cats should be vaccinated against rabies according to local/country rules and regulations. Wild animals kept as pets should never be vaccinated, and contact with wild animals should be avoided.

Prevention in people

People should also avoid wild animal contact. A fox walking down the street in broad daylight is not out to play; obviously the animal is sick and rabies should be the first disease on the list of possibilities.

If a person is bitten by an animal that is healthy and properly vaccinated, the animal must be quarantined for 10 days, the wild animal often escapes and cannot be tested.

If escape occurs, a physician should decide if the victim should undergo post-exposure prophylaxis. Rabies post-exposure vaccines are given on days o, three, seven, 14, and 28 following the bite.   

 

The Older border collie.

 

A older Border Collie is of course not a diseases.Caring for your older Border Collie can be very rewarding and challenging, as well as heartbreaking! On an average, Border Collies typically live 10 to 13, but many dogs go well beyond the age of 13. Just like with people, old age is a relative thing. Some dogs age gracefully, while others do not. Some dogs are old at 8-10, while others remain youthful and full of pep well beyond 12 or 13. As with anything, it depends on the breed of dog, the genes, the kind of care and the amount of stress in the dogs life. As with the human experience things can and will go wrong. 

The older dogs needs become quite different depending on how well they are aging and what particular health problems they may have developed. Unfortunately most of the problems that occur as a result of the aging process are irreversible. About all we can do is take care of our elderly dogs the best way possible, giving them the best medical care, lots of love and making sure they spend their golden years as comfortably as possible.

Puppies may demand extra care, attention and time, but you know the difficulties will improve as they mature. 

However, with the older dog, everything is down hill and past a certain point, you know the situation is not going to get better! You may find especially in the last couple of years, the senior citizen definitely needs additional care. As a dog ages, many of their needs begin to change. Some typical signs of the aging process are decreased activity and appetite, longer hours sleeping, stiffness in the extremities, and dyer skin and coat. Their predicament can be tentative and fragile.

The diet may need to be altered, as well as reduced in quantity. Aging typically sees a reduction in appetite. You may discover overnight that your less-active Border Collie has suddenly become obese. Obesity is not doing the older dog any favors because it can add stress to already weakened bones and joints. Consequently you may need to reduce the amount of food or change the type of food entirely. Personally I have never had a healthy Border Collie our athor breed lose its appetite due to age, but I have had quite a few become obese. As a rule Collies are easy keepers, so you do need to watch their weight! There are numerous excellent senior diets on the market. Some people though have found many of the senior diets not only lacking in palatability, but also too low in protein or fat. As a result, the older dog can either can get too thin or the coat becomes dry and brittle. Many people opt for leaving the dog on the same diet they have had for the entire life, as long as the dog is doing well. Also available are various vitamin supplements specially fortified with extra iron and calcium, with the senior in mind. Vets are discovering the value of moderate exercise in older people. The same rules apply in dogs…..the necessity for moderation becomes a necessity. Older dogs still need exercise, but not as strenuously as previous years.

It's not unusual for some older dogs to become deaf or blind. Unfortunately other than treating the dogs with kindness and respect, nothing can be done in these two areas. Make sure the ears and eyes are kept clean and free of matter. Of major concern are dental needs. It pays to keep the dogs teeth clean and watch out for any tooth or gum problems. Border Collies teeth seem to be more prone to tartar collection as they age and you may find yourself having to keep up with the teeth more often than than in previous years.

General health needs of the older dog may need to be treated differently. One of the typical problems that seem to hit many of the larger breeds, including older Collies, is arthritis. Sooner or later, your aging Collie will probably show these signs: stiffness, soreness or lameness. In years past a dog owner was pretty much limited to treatments of aspirin or various cortisones and steroid products. However, within the last few years there are several alternatives to these previously used drugs. They won't cure arthritis, but they may help alleviate some of the problems such as, pain and swelling typically seen in the arthritic dog. Recently, one of the most highly touted drugs is Rimadyl®. Opinion is still out on this drug, as many people have had either great success with it, or others have experienced side effects. Another popular choice in the ongoing battle with Arthritis is a combination of supplements called: Chondroitin Sulfate & Glucosamine HCI. Usually these two supplements are combined with vitamin C. Many dog owners, as well as Veterinarians have had good luck with these joint care products. When the situation gets to the point where the dog becomes really uncomfortable, there are various buffered aspirin products on the market. One good one is Arthricare, made by Veterinary Products Laboratories. However, with any aspirin product, the owner needs to be aware of possible stomach irritation. As with anything, consult with your Veterinarian before using any supplements or drugs. When things get to the point of no return when a dog is having great difficulty getting up, laying down or navigating, more extreme measures may be necessary. Some Veterinarians might suggest a minimal daily dosage of either prednisone or Phenylbutazone. These two drugs should never be used without first consulting a Veterinarian. Not only can they have dangerous side affects, but they can cause imminent death when combined either together or with other drugs. Basically any drug used on the older pet is just buying the dog a little more time and trying to ease the quality of life. But by the same token, you don't want to destroy them doing it.

There are orthopedic beds with lots of foam rubber, made especially with the aging pet in mind. Also, heated pads or bedding might help to make the aging pet more comfortable.

Many Vets recommend occasional health checks and blood work as a form of preventative medicine. Blood work especially can give early warning to pending health problems. This is especially a good idea if your aging dog just doesn't seem right. Anemia can often be a problem in the aging dog, as well as lower Thyroid levels. It is good to keep on top of these health issues, before something gets out of control.  

NEVER, EVER should the older dog be left outside to deal with the weather elements, whether it is heat or cold. Situations that a younger dog brushes off, can become a calamity for the oldster. Not only do they need to be protected from weather extremes, but they deserve it, after all the great rewards they have given to the owner!  

The older dog may need to go outside to eliminate more often. The once fastidious oldster may find themselves in a position of not being able to “hold it” as they once were able. Thus, more frequent trips outside become necessary. A frequent Collie problem (and other breeds as well), is a condition found especially in the spayed bitch.....leakage of urine. This condition is a medical problem and has absolutely nothing to do with housebreaking. There are various products on the market, such as female hormones that can help with this condition. First though, infection needs to be ruled out. Consult with your Veterinarian about taking in a urine sample to check for an infection. If infection is ruled out, more that likely the problem is incontinence from being spayed. There are several studies in the works regarding this problem. This problem may become even more common with the recent pratice of early spay, thanks to the overpopulation problem of dogs.  

Border Collies especially, more so than any other breed (thanks to their close ties to humans), deserve much better than this! After all the pleasure your dogs have given you over the years, they deserve the best care and treatment possible whether they be a retired show champion, brood bitch or just a valued pet. 

Whatever they may be, they deserve the extra time that comes with their aging years.   Most important of all, don't forget the love and attention that they crave and deserve! It becomes a rewarding experience for all involved!

 

Link:

Info abouth Poison control plant list dogs.

 

 

And then the DNA testing results.

All my dogs are lucky me Dna Normal on all tests..

But i think that delete other dogs from breeding how are carrier...is rong. The whole object of developing these tests was NEVER TO REDUCE THE GENE POOL by eliminating carriers from breeding. The reason they started out to have the tests developed was TO EXPAND THE GENE POOL and allow more dogs to be safely used in a breeding programs without having to worry about producing affected puppies. Once a DNA test is developed for a disease, that disease immediately ceases to be a problem for the breed. It is simply a matter of always breeding with one parent DNA clear for that condition and no affected puppies are ever produced again. It does not matter if carriers are still being bred from in 20 or 30 years or forever, so long as there are no affected puppies.

Carriers of these conditons offer more diverse genes that can help reduce the
incidence of other problems that there is no test for yet. Problems like
epilepy, cerebellar abiotrophy, glaucoma, Border Collie collapse and laryngeal
paralysis are what we should be worried about and any one of them could become a major rather than minor breed problem if we narrow the gene pool by eliminating carriers of conditons we have complete control over. Removing carriers of a particular condition from any breed always leads to an increase in other genetic problems.

In Australia they have a much higher incidence of TNS carriers than we would have had if we hadn't had to eliminate CL carriers from the gene pool before the CL test was developed. By breeding away from CL we inadvertantly bred straight into TNS.

Breeding from a CEA affected, to produce a litter of carriers is no big deal
either. In most litters only one or two puppies at most are ever bred from, the
rest being desexed pets. So a litter from an affected adds one or two carriers
to the gene pool. So what. When these are bred to normals statistically half of
their progeny will be normal, but if a carrier is chosen as pick of the next
litter, again so what. How is it possibly doing any damage to the breed ?
Breeding from a CL or TNS affected is different because these dogs are actually ill but nearly all CEA affected BCs have no symptoms at all.

It makes me really sad and disheartened to see the tests they worked so hard to have developed, not being used for the betterment of the breed, but just to give breeders bragging rights, that they have all clear stock. If you care about the breed you will use the tests as they were intended to be used.

As a tool and nothing more then that.